see also: Proto Caron Swadesh list
|Proto Qhalqon Language|
Proto Caron-Qhalqon Languages
Minority speakers in:
Central Keskus: 200,000
Nasals: m n ŋ (/m n ŋ/)
Stops: p ph t th c ch k kh q qh (/p pʰ t tʰ ʧ ʧʰ k kʰ q qʰ/)
Fricatives: f v s z lh sh zh (/f v s z ɬ ʃ ʒ/)
Other: l r w (/l r w/)
Vowels: a aa e ee i ii o oo u uu (/a aː e eː i iː o oː u uː/)
Note that nasals match the position of any stops or other nasals that follow them.
Doubled consonants are geminates, if aspirated, the h follows the second. (pph, tth, kkh, qqh)
Like in Proto Caron, vowels become lax in open syllables, however geminates do cause this effect like in Proto Caron. The lax vowels are the same as in Proto Caron: a becomes [ə], e becomes [ɛ], i becomes [ɪ], o becomes [ɔ], u becomes [ʊ]. This only occurs to the second vowel in the diphthong au.
For example, a comparison between (Insular) Caron and Qhalqon with the words Bacar, the name for the mainland, and daoqon, or shaman.
- (Insular Caron) Bacar [bak.'aɾ]
- (Qhalqon) Wakkal [wa.'kːal]
- (Insular Caron) Daoqon [daɔ.'ʔon]
- (Qhalqon) Thauqon [tʰaʊ.'qon]
Proto Qhalqon is primarily prefixing with an OVS word order.
- Woqh puŋ qet.
- rock hold 3
- He holds the rock.
Note that Proto-Caron has 3 verb uses: (1) intransitive, (2) transitive, and (3) reflexive. However, out of these 3 usages, only with class 2 is the usage consistent with the name, as there are some verbs that can take objects when in class 1, and both class 1 and class 2 verbs can be reflexive, while not all class 3 verbs strictly are reflexive. In these cases, word order changes so that the verb remains recognizable as being used according to its class.
Class 1 verb usage with objects places the object after the subject:
- Puŋ qet woqh.
- feel 3 rock
- He feels the rock.
Similarly, class 1 or 2 verb reflexive usage places the reflexive pronoun after the subject. Class two verb usage retains an object in the normal position, even if it is only the dummy pronoun cu.
- Puŋ qhalqet zhikkhalqet.
- feel PLR-3 REF-PLR-3
- They feel each other.
- Ku puŋ qhalqet zhikkhalqet.
- 4 hold PLR-3 REF-PLR-3
- They hold each other.
Normal reflexive verb usage has the reflexive pronoun in the normal location, and it matches the subject pronoun. However, unlike Proto Caron, dropping the pronoun is not allowed.
- Zhikkhalqet pun kalqet.
- REF-PLR-3 pleasure
- They pleasure each other.
- They pleasure themselves.
|∅||indicative||Ku thaŋas qet.||He is creating something.|
|ka||permissive||Ku kathaŋas qet.||He is allowed to create something.|
|qhu||necessitive||Ku qhuthaŋas qet.||He needs to create something.|
|fa||generic||Ku fathaŋas qet.||He generally creates something.|
|wu||inferential||Ku wuthaŋas qet.||He is creating something. (But I don't know for sure)|
I think he is creating something.
|lhi||conditional||Ku lhithaŋas qet lhukh...||He would create something if...|
|mu||optative||Ku muthaŋas qet.||I want him to create something.|
|ni||desirative||Ku nithaŋas qet.||He wants to create something.|
|ŋu||potential||Ku ŋuthaŋas qet.||He might create something.|
|zhi||abilitative||Ku zhithaŋas qet.||He can create something.|
Some moods, like the abilitative and the potential, can be stacked.