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The Garo speak a primitive language, termed proto-Garo for consistency, that holds an agglutanitive structure for derivational and verbal morphology and and an analytic structure for nominal and pronominal morphology with head-finalness & VSO word order.

Phonology[]

Vowels[]

  • Long Vowels /i: u: ɔ: ɛ: æː/ <ī ū ō ē ā>
  • Short Vowels /i u ɔ ɛ æ/ <i u o e a>
  • Oral Diphthongs /ɛi ɛɔ æi æɔ ɔi uɔ ɛːi ɛːɔ æːi æːɔ/ <ei eo ai ao oi uo ēi ēo āi āo>

Consonants[]

  • Nasals /m n/ <m n>
  • Stops /p t k c ʔ/ <p t k c q>
  • Palatalised Stops /pʲ tʲ kʲ/ <b d g>
  • Fricatives /ɸ ɕ ʃ ç χ/ <f s z h x>
  • Approximants /ʋ ʟ/ <v l>
  • Tap /ɾ/ <r>


Phonotactics[]

[Syllable Structure] PG uses a CV(V) syllable structure with Final V optional. Consonant clusters are not allowed in any position and a consonant cannot end a word or syllable.

Stress is moraic with single (short or long) vowels counting as one mora and double vowels/diphthongs counting as two mora. In multisyllabic words stress falls on the final syllable if it contains one mora but the penultimate if the final syllable is two mora. Stress is not marked in the orthography but is regular.

Morphology[]

Nouns Nouns use a system of particles to mark case and inflections to mark gender, otherwise being fairly analytic.

Inflections[]

PG inflections are suffixed on to the preceeding noun, keeping the root intact.

  • Masculine -i/bi
  • Feminine -u/bu
  • Inanimate Masculine -a/ba
  • Inanimate Feminine -o/bo

Case marking[]

  • Nominative ve
  • Accusative ka
  • Genitive lu
  • Dative mo
  • Ablative zo
  • Elative ki
  • Abessive re

All nouns are treated as count nouns, which is to say that there is no measure word for nouns just attach the number as an adjective.

Pronouns[]

There are only two types of pronouns in PG, Personal & Interrogative which inflect like nouns and take on their particles.

Personal Pronouns[]

Person Singular Plural
1 magi mago
2 tazi tazo
3 vaci vaco

Interrogative Pronouns[]

  • Adjective [which] xā
  • Person [who] fāizi
  • Thing [what] puo
  • Place [where] giki
  • Time [when] damo
  • Way [how] pūfoi
  • Reason [why] qaka

Verbs[]

Verbs in PG are highly inflected taking on a number of affixes to show number, person, tense, aspect, mood & evidentiality.

Number[]
Example Gloss
Singular

mibapanu

I/he/she eat(s)

Plural

pibapanu

They/We Eat


Person[]
Example Gloss
1st Person

mibapanuhai

I eat
2nd Person

mibapanute

You eat
3rd Person

mibapanuneo

They eat


Tense[]
Example Gloss
Past

mibapanuhaipa

I have eaten
Near-Past

mibapanuhaico

I have just eaten
Present

mibapanuhaitāo

I am eating
Near-Future

mibapanuhaimou

I am about to eat
Future

mibapanuhaige

I am going to eat


Aspect[]
Example Gloss
Imperfect

mibapanuhaitāoki

I haven't finished eating
Progressive

mibapanuhaitāonai

I am still eating
Perfect


mibapanuhaitāoqoi

I've finished eating


Mood[]
Example Gloss
Negative


mibapanuhaitāonaika

I am not still eating

Positive

mibapanuhaitāonailo

I am still eating


Evidentuality[]

Example

Gloss

Hearsay (Someone else heard/saw)

mibapanuhaitāonailofu

I heard from X he was still eating

You heard

mibapanuhaitāonailoze

I heard him still eating

You saw

mibapanuhaitāonailodoe

I saw him eating

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