The Northern Ancient Sbakaz language (NAS) is spoken by the Ancient Sbakaz People, a society on the Northern Coastal savannas of the most southwest island. It is rather synthetic language with synthetic word construction. Compared to it's parent language, Proto-Sbakaz, it has lost some synthetic qualities, but does not differ too much. It has also become more of a case based language, with four new cases.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Grammar
The name "Sbakaz" means "The People" in PS. It stems from Bakan, become, with the ending "-z" which means "one who -". Bakaz therefore means "A Person", or "The one who becomes". The "s" comes from the plural prefix for masculine words, which are nearly all.
The phonemes the language represents have a strong tendency towards approximates, and
A = [a] E = [e] I = [i] O = [o] U = [u] Ü = [ɨ] Ù = [ə]
V [v] B [b] D [d] S [s] Z [z] N [n] M [m] G [g] Ch [tʃ] W [w] T [t] K [k].
Aside from those, J's are pronounced as [j] and Zh is as [ʒ]. Other sounds not in English are the following:
β = [β]
Γ = [ɣ̞]
X = [x] (Rare)
Ṫ = [t̪]
The base structure is VSO, with modifiers coming after the word it modifies. To form a question, order is switched to an SVO order.
The syntax of a verb phrase can be a little complicated in PS, if you factor in the verb itself. The base structure is the verb itself, whose structure we will cover later. The second major part is the Auxillary, which comes before the core verb.
Kaddi Γodin 'üs
You should make/cause
After that part, it may be followed by an adverb, or another type of phrase.
The noun phrase is quite simple as well. First you have the noun itself, and then a conjunction or relative phrase marker. If there are two or more nouns conjoined. You may also have a preposition in front of the noun when needed.
Substansitive, which include all nouns and adjectives, are formed the same way(with adjective agreement). The substanstive is entirely synthetic in formation, with agglutination. They start out with a location prefix, if applicable, then followed by the plural marker(which is affected by gender). The next piece is the noun stem itself, followed by a case marker.
Gender in NAS is actually quite easy. There are two genders, masculine and feminine, but they are not arbitrarily assigned. If an object is specifically feminine, it will be feminine. If it is not, it is automatically masculine. The Feminine is marked with a -t, which comes after the root, or replaces the final letter (In the case of the "one who" -z particle). E.g. Bakaz (Man), Bakat (Woman)
Plural in PS is based on gender, with the plural marker for masculine, and thus most words, being S-, as we have in "sbakaz" (people). For feminine, it is V-, which would make "Women", Vbakat.
There are 11 cases in NAS, all shown in the following table (Note, "x" stands for whatever noun in the case being described)
|Accusative||The Direct or Indirect Object|
|Genitive||To say "Of x"|
|Instrumental||To say "With x"|
|Locative||To say "Without x"|
|Relative||To say "the x that" Note, that this is not truly a case, as it can be added to the end even if there is another case marker.|
|Equative||To say "x-like"|
|Abessive||To say "x-less"|
|Commitative||To say "In company with x"|
|Causative||To say something was done with x as a cause|
|Benefactive||To say something was done for the benefit of x|
The verb is also agglutinative, with the so called "Direction" prefix first, and the verb stem following. After the verb stem is: the mood, time marker, tense, and negative marker.
The Direction Prefix
The Direction Prefix is an odd thing. It's definition is hard to put in words, but the direction it speaks about it metaphysical for lack of a better term. This particle is not necessary to be in a verb, The following is a table.
|Direction||Prefix||Example of Modification|
|Towards||ze-||The Verb "to transfer" can be given this to become "to give"|
|Away||mag-||The Verb "to transfer" can be given this to become "to take" or "to recieve"|
|Around||sek-||Would cause "look" to become "look around"|
|Over||bar-||Would make "emphasize", "over-emphasize"|
|Under||ṫur-||Would make "emphasize", "under-emphasize"|
In NAS, there are only 4 moods, and one of them is unmarked, and one of them has a little complication. The first mood is the indicative, and remains unmarked. The second is the imperative, which uses the marker "ü" (or "üt" if you are talking to a woman). The third is the causative, which uses the marker "s", which is placed after the imperative marker if the sentence is a command to cause something, or when saying something was caused. The final case is the desiderative mood, which roughly gives a verb the meaning "May x". For example, "May we win" would be win.DES we.
The time particle is a little tricky as well, because it covers both tense and the amount of times an action is performed. The following is a list of the particles, which can be combined (when logical) with each other in any chosen order.
|Again||-ag-||The English equivalent of the prefix "re-"|
|Habitually||-gadd-||Used to say you do something habitually, e.g. "I walk every morning", "I sing well"|
|Never||-Va-||Adds the semantic meaning of the English "Never" to the sentence. e.g. "I will never" "I never" "I never have"|
|Twice||-Ba-||To say that an action is doubled up.|
In NAS, there are 4 Tenses. The unmarked present. A past, a future, and an immediate future.
The negative Suffix is a simple "-ve" added to the end of the sentence to negate the meaning.