Rinaki is spoken by the Naruerinaki, a people living upon two Island chains in the ocean east of Namjog.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Verbs
- 4 Nouns
- 5 Phrases and clauses
Rinaki comes from rina 'to speak' and simply means language, speech, tongue. Naruerinaki comes from the same root and means the to speak something with the plural marker.
Stops p t k /p t k/
Fricatives f v s z sh / f v s z S/
Affricates pf ts ch /pf ts tS/
Liquids r l /r l/
Approximants w y /w j/
a ä e i ì o u / A @ I i Q U/
ay ey oy /aI eI oI
/m/ only lenits when followed by a vowel
Rinaki is an ergative absolutive language. This is marked on nouns and not on the verb.
Ntuekasha nchuwem navi
Boy-erg fish-acc hunts
The boy hunts the fish
Word order is relatively free as cases show the relationship between words, however as a default order most speakers use SOV/EAV
The verb isn't marked for person nor tense but for perfectiveness or imperfectiveness, benefactive or antibenefactive and lauditive or pejorative. Aspect and various moods are used by placing infixes in 2 positions.
Tu<1>n / T<2>un
The perfective is used for complete actions, also for actions in the future you are definate you will complete.
The perfective is made with the infix -y+duplication of previous vowel.
tiuluyuu looked after some one
yäyääna I saw, have seen
The imperfective is made with the infix w+duplication of previous vowel. Both the perfective and imperfective are made in infix position 1
pawaa was climbing/ am climbing
äwääsu was burning/ is burning
The benefactive shows that the action has benefited the speaker in some way
It is made in infix position 2 with -ol-
navoli hunts for my benefit
tsolu sings for me
To show the benefactive for the listener add the hnunuhna tsolu singing for you/ for your benefit
The benefactive show that the action harms the speaker.
It is made again in infix position 2 with -ur-
kura comes to harm me
yänura sees me to my loss
again adding Hnunuhna puts focus on the listener
The lauditive show the speaker is happy about the action and is made with the infix -onk- in infinx position two if used with either the benefactice or antibenefactive it come after
eshonka I'm eating and am happy about it
tiumakonka i gladly give it
The perjorative shows the speaker is not happy about the action. It is made with the infix -ämp-
tiueyeeshämpa i ate it (and it was horrid)
rueloyookämpu some thing bit me (and didn't like it)
Causatives are used to make verbs or nouns do something, i.e to die, becomes to kill; to make die/to cause to die. Adding a causative to a noun; house, to make a house. In a noun this infix will always come after the last syllable, intervining between the consonant and the vowel causing the vowel to move after -an-
Die intr – tuki > Kill tr – tukani
House – zunka > to build a house zunkana
These verbs follow normal verbal rules, however the first infix will come after any grammatical prefixes
To build a house – Zunkana
Have built a house - Zuyuunkana
Building a house - Zuwuunkana
- Brother made me break the spear > Tuskosha foywem urichoyunkipom winano
Notice in this statement me has been demoted to accussative and the spear is now genitive from accussative
A passive can be created by taking away an arguement and putting it into the accussative case
The boy hunts the fish Ntuekasha nchuwem navi > The fish is hunted Nchuwem navi
The boy hunts Ntuekasha navi > The Boy is hunted Ntuekawem navi
There are suffixes which can come after final vowel
- Opative - want > Machakwe
- Possibilitve -can > Machawiu
- Obligative - should/must/ought > Machanga
Negation is marked with the prefix pu-, this is followed by lention.
I didn't teach him what to hunt > He navi, foysha smowem puvachämpa
There are two forms of the imperative, one used to make polite commands and the other informal. The formal is made in position infix 1 with -yun-
please follow/come > kayun Please eat > eyunsha
The informal is the simply stem of the verb come! Ka!
To form questions add the particle aswi to the end of the main clause.
Would you like to eat? > hnunu eshakwe aswi?
Have you eaten today? > hnunu chuzi eyeesha aswi?
- -ki; nominalizer; makes verbs into nouns.
Rina – Speak > Rinaki – language/Rinaki
Bibi – Drink > Bibiki – a Drink
- -tsono; verbalize an adjective;
Tsèngi - hunger > tsèngitsono - to be hungry
Pìvang – cruel > pìvangitsengi – to be cruel
Verbs that take tsengi and huna as an ending add their infixes to the root of the word
- -hùna; to use a noun;
punga – fist > pungahuna – to punch
myeta – flesh > myetahuna – to have sex
- -laki; derive abstract nouns from verbs,
tuki – die > tukilaki - death. Ketu – love > ketulaki – love
-kwi; to go somewhere to do...; to go somewhere to die > tukikwi; he went to die > smoko tuyuukikwi.
-hano; to come somewhere to do...; to come to eat > eshahano;
he came here to eat > smoko eyeeshahano.
There are three numbers in Rinaki, singular, the prefix dual tyo- and the prefix Na- denoting more than two. The dual is used for anything that occurs in natural pairs and whatever the speaker wants to join. Both prefixes cause lenition.
Brother Tsusko > Brothers Nasusko
My eyes > Foypom Tyonari
Subject of a transitive verb sha, otherwise known as the actor.
The Brother hit the Sister> tuskosha zurawem puyuungahuna.
Object of an intransitive verb wem, otherwise known as the patient.
The Brother hit the sister tuskosha zurawem puyuungahuna
-run is used to indicate movement to a location or time, with the location being either the final or non final destination then the locative suffix is used.
I went to the House > Foy zunkarun keyeehe
-nan indicates a static static location such as in/on/at
I am in my house > Foy zunkanan seze
With/by are translated with the instrumental suffix -yun if the preposition indicates an instrument used by the subject to perform the action of the verb.
I always hunt with a bow > Foysha ngakyoeyun uyongi navoli
-kutu is used to show joint participation in some situation described by the verb.
I hunt with my brothers > ''Foysha foypom nasuskokutu tiunavi'
-pom is used to show posssession
The father's fish > Anampom nchu
My mother > Foypom nanta
-hna indicates the beneficiary of an action and is usually translated as for or to, any verb will also have the benefitative suffix
Kuoyenrìmata gave us the world > Kuoyenrìmatasha tuuntawem nafoyhna soyoongoli
-tsi show respect towards spirits and used for politeness
mother nanta> honoured mother nantatsi
The vocative oe is used to address people or a group
Hello brother > Koswo oe tusko
Phrases and clauses
Noun phrases can be conjuncted with kwòmo (and), however Rìnaki does not use conjunctions with joining verb phrases.
Dependent and relative clauses
Simple relative clauses can be formed adjectivized verbs, which have the suffix -yo and come beofre the noun
The men who hunted the the shark > Kuaneo nayaaviyo Nasumpo
The bird that chases the children > Kwesmi twumpoyo namwey
Before and after
Before and after occur last in the first clause and is always the first clause
Kwerum - Before
S1 kwerum,S2 > before S1, S2
Before you eat, you should thank the spirits > Hnunusha tiueshola kwerum, hnunusha Nayunetsiwem toyholunga
Fisko - After
S1 fisko, S2 > after S1, S2
After we killed the fish, we sailed home > Nafoysha nchuwem tuyuukanoli fisko, zunkarun iyiinchu
Makto - When
Is used to express simultaneity and occurs in the first clause
When the weather is good, the children play on the beach > Hvìna rungo' seze makto, do navewe erekonan wanukwi'
When I am tired, I don't hunt well > Foy hweri sezämpe makto, foysha hvìna putiunavurämpi